kernal in os

Kernal is the bridge between application and hardware.Kernal communicating between hardware and software components.The kernel has full control of the hardware and provides abstractions for the processes running in user mode. A process running in user mode cannot access the hardware, and must use the abstractions provided by the kernel.It’s fuctionalities are process,memory,I/O device,filesystem managements and interrupt handeling.

Difference between a kernal and OS is,kernal is having only useful applications and utilities loaded,but in OS it will be a complete package.For an example we can say that Linux is a kernel as it does not include applications like file-system utilities, windowing systems and graphical desktops, system administrator commands, text editors, compilers etc. So, various companies add these kind of applications over linux kernel and provide their operating system like ubuntu, suse, centOS, redHat etc.

Types Of Kernels
Monolithic Kernels:-Linux follows the monolithic modular approach

Architecture is software———>kernal——->hardware


set of primitives or system calls to implement minimal OS services such as memory management, multitasking, and inter-process communication.

Architecture is Kernal<——>servers<——–>software

Hybrid (or) Modular kernels:-Windows and Apple MAC follows

Hybrid kernels are micro kernels that have some “none essential” code in kernel-space in order for the code to run more quickly than it would were it to be in user-space. Hybrid kernels are a compromise between the monolithic and microkernel designs.

Coming to windows, what are the the kernals it is using and how to check the kernal version.
Internal release versions for versions of Windows 9x are “4.x”, where previous MS-DOS based versions of Windows used version numbers of 3.2 or less. Windows NT used a similar but separate version number between 3.5 and 4.0. The first successor to Windows Me (with internal version 4.9), Windows XP, used Version 5.1.[2]

Microsoft Windows [Version 6.1.7601]

Microsoft Windows [Version 5.2.3790]
Microsoft Windows [Version 6.0.6002]
2008 R2
Microsoft Windows [Version 6.1.7601]
windows 7
Microsoft Windows [Version 6.1.7601]

and also can find the version from registery
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\CurrentVersion subkey


Posted on January 29, 2012, in General, Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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