Monthly Archives: January 2012

WindowsSVN Setup

SVN is a software versioning and a revision control system distributed under a free license. Subversion used to maintain current and historical versions of files such as source code, web pages, and documentation. Its goal is to be a mostly-compatible successor to the widely used Concurrent Versions System (CVS).

Here is a document to install and use SVN under windows.

WindowsSVN Setup


mount second hdd in linux

How to mount a second hard drive,here is showing how it is.
Disk /dev/sdb: 53.6 GB, 53687091200 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6527 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

#fdisk /dev/sdb
Command (m for help): n
Command action
e   extended
p   primary partition (1-4)
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-6527, default 1): 1
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-6527, default 6527): 6527
Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1-4): 1
Hex code (type L to list codes): 83

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks
# mkfs.ext3 -b 4096 /dev/sdb
mke2fs 1.40.2 (12-Jul-2007)
/dev/sdb is entire device, not just one partition!
Proceed anyway? (y,n) y
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
6553600 inodes, 13107200 blocks
655360 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296
400 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
16384 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
4096000, 7962624, 11239424

Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will be automatically checked every 25 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first.  Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

#mkdir /ddrive
#vi /etc/fstab

/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 /                       ext3    defaults        1 1
LABEL=/boot             /boot                   ext3    defaults        1 2
tmpfs                   /dev/shm                tmpfs   defaults        0 0
devpts                  /dev/pts                devpts  gid=5,mode=620  0 0
sysfs                   /sys                    sysfs   defaults        0 0
proc                    /proc                   proc    defaults        0 0
/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01 swap                    swap    defaults        0 0
/dev/sdb                 /ddrive        ext3    defaults        1 1

#mount /ddrive
# df
Filesystem           1K-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
29456444  18938752   8997260  68% /
/dev/sda1               194442     12796    171607   7% /boot
tmpfs                   191156         0    191156   0% /dev/shm
/dev/sdb              51606140    184272  48800428   1% /ddrive

xfs filesystem in fedora

XFS is a high-performance journaling file system created by Silicon Graphics, Inc. It is the default file system in IRIX releases 5.3 and onwards and later ported to the Linux kernel. XFS is particularly proficient at parallel IO due to its allocation group based design. This enables extreme scalability of IO threads, filesystem bandwidth, file and filesystem size when spanning multiple storage devices.The filesystem was released under the GNU General Public License in May 2000, and ported to Linux, with the first distribution support appearing in 2001.

* Scalable features and performance from small to truly huge data (petabytes)
* Huge numbers of files (millions)
* Exceptional performance: 500+ MBytes/second
* Designed with log/database (journal) technology as a fundamental part not just an       extension to an existing filesystem
* Mission-critical reliability

Scalability of the file system is 2^63  = 9223372036854775808 ie= 9 x 10^18 = 9 exabytes

Installing and configuring XFS on Fedora

#yum install xfsprogs

Find the drive to convert XFS

#fdisk  -l

Create a Volume and mount

mkdir volumename
#mkdir /mog
mount -t xfs /dev/sdc /mog

Edit the file in fstab

#echo “/dev/sdc /volume xfs noatime 0 0” >> /etc/fstab

#cat /etc/fstab


2k forwader and 2k3,2k8 conditional forwaders

A windows server is not authorative for a zone, and that a DNS server can’t resolve locally it can forward DNS resolution requests to another DNS servers .

When a client queried in DNS, the way it responds depends on the type of query issued, which can be either iterative or recursive. In an iterative query, the client asks the name server for the best possible answer to its query. The name server checks its cache and the zones for which it is authoritative and returns the best possible answer to the client.

In a recursive query,client demands either a full answer (the IP address of the target host) .

Conditional Forwarding feature that is included in Windows Server 2003 and 2008.

Conditional DNS forwarding is a useful feature that avoids the usual recursive nature of DNS resolution requests, in which DNS must first find DNS servers for .com, then, and so on. If you have a large namespace,consider using conditional DNS forwarding to speed up resolution requests. This feature is also useful for connecting Organization uses a nonstandard namespace.(ie microsoft.local)

In windows 2000 forwader

In windows2003 conditional forwader

In windows2008

kernal in os

Kernal is the bridge between application and hardware.Kernal communicating between hardware and software components.The kernel has full control of the hardware and provides abstractions for the processes running in user mode. A process running in user mode cannot access the hardware, and must use the abstractions provided by the kernel.It’s fuctionalities are process,memory,I/O device,filesystem managements and interrupt handeling.

Difference between a kernal and OS is,kernal is having only useful applications and utilities loaded,but in OS it will be a complete package.For an example we can say that Linux is a kernel as it does not include applications like file-system utilities, windowing systems and graphical desktops, system administrator commands, text editors, compilers etc. So, various companies add these kind of applications over linux kernel and provide their operating system like ubuntu, suse, centOS, redHat etc.

Types Of Kernels
Monolithic Kernels:-Linux follows the monolithic modular approach

Architecture is software———>kernal——->hardware


set of primitives or system calls to implement minimal OS services such as memory management, multitasking, and inter-process communication.

Architecture is Kernal<——>servers<——–>software

Hybrid (or) Modular kernels:-Windows and Apple MAC follows

Hybrid kernels are micro kernels that have some “none essential” code in kernel-space in order for the code to run more quickly than it would were it to be in user-space. Hybrid kernels are a compromise between the monolithic and microkernel designs.

Coming to windows, what are the the kernals it is using and how to check the kernal version.
Internal release versions for versions of Windows 9x are “4.x”, where previous MS-DOS based versions of Windows used version numbers of 3.2 or less. Windows NT used a similar but separate version number between 3.5 and 4.0. The first successor to Windows Me (with internal version 4.9), Windows XP, used Version 5.1.[2]

Microsoft Windows [Version 6.1.7601]

Microsoft Windows [Version 5.2.3790]
Microsoft Windows [Version 6.0.6002]
2008 R2
Microsoft Windows [Version 6.1.7601]
windows 7
Microsoft Windows [Version 6.1.7601]

and also can find the version from registery
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\CurrentVersion subkey

AD 2008 features

Comparing the features of Active Directory server roles in Windows 2008 and 2003 are


2003 auditing you will only know the present values of the changed attribute
previous and present values for the changed attributes of the active directory object using the new auditing feature in windows 2008

Fine-Grained Passwords

In windows 2008 password policy support for specific group of peoples with in the domain.
In windows 2003 all the user account in the domain should use the same password policy configured in domain level.

Read-Only Domain Controller

It is likely to be old NT style BDC,designed for requirements like branch office setup and to managing

In any Active Directory environment if one Domain Controller not replicated with the partner Domain Controller more then one month, then it’s a very critical issue you have to rectify the replication problem as soon as possible or the Domain Controller needs to be decommissioned with in the tombstone lifetime, since its read-only domain controller no worries about the tombstone time.

Restartable Active Directory Domain Services

In windows 2008 active directory is a services, you can stop or restart the services (no need to restart the domain controller)for maintenance without restarting the domain controller and restarting it in Directory Services Restore Mode is not required for most maintenance functions, however still some maintenance function require Directory Services Restore Mode

Database Mounting Tool

Active Directory Database mounting tool can be called Snapshot Viewer, Snapshot Browser, and Active Directory data mining tool( snapshot is a shadow copy created by the Volume Shadow Copy Service, at different times so that you can better choose which data to restore after object deletion).

Active Directory Recycle Bin

without Active Directory authoritative restore,you can restore the accidentally deleted Active Directory object.
(single object restore like a accidental deletion of user or OU) .

Active Directory module for Windows PowerShell

PowerShell is available on windows 2003,but not fully supported for AD.But in

itself, however it’s  Active Directory, you can’t manage the Active Directive using the PowerShell in windows 2008 windows 2008 Windows PowerShell provides command-line scripting for administrative, configuration, and diagnostic tasks.

Active Directory Administrative Center

A new tool in windows 2008 R2 to manage active directory, we already have ADUC(active directory users and computer) to manage the active directory.

Active Directory Best Practices Analyzer
To identify and implement the best practices(this will scan your network and find the best practice) in the configuration of your AD environment.

Active Directory Web Services

Active Directory Web Services is give you the Web service interface to Active Directory domains and AD LDS instances (Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services)

Offline domain join

Offline domain join makes to join a member server to the domain even the domain controller not reachable from the member server.

Managed Service Accounts

Managed service accounts and virtual accounts in windows 2008, now you can easily manage the service principal names (SPNs), it will provide Automatic password management

You can use the domain account for the application (services), this can isolate the privileges for the application.

Active Directory Management Pack

Active Directory service on windows 2008 can monitor using the Active Directory Management Pack (MOM, SCOM),
specifically to monitor the performance and availability of Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), also monitors the overall health of AD DS and alerts you to critical performance issues.

What actually Difference between Win2008 and win2008 R2

Both are the same operating system, just at a different service pack level.
As far as the windows 2008 and windows 2008 SP2 concern it’s uses the same OS kernel of windows vista, and in windows Server 2008 R2 has the same OS kernel of Windows7(version 6.1 of the OS),but Windows Server 2008 is based on the 6.0 kernel.

Windows Server 2008 R2 exists only for 64-bit platforms, there’s no x86 version anymore.

5 Steps to Extending the win7 Trial By 30 Days

Step 1
Right-clicking Computer and choosing Properties to check Windows activation
Step 2
Right click on command prompt and run as administrator
Step 3
Type the command slmgr -rearm
Step 4
Rebbot the system after you see “command compleated successfully”
Step 5
You are done with another 30 days left to activate
Here i found good articles for windows 7 tips and tricks

why cpu-memory is high-tools to check

When a cpu or memory causing high usage issues,Windows Task Manager is quite a limited tool to know the related applications or libraries in use .So here i am talking free tools to use such conditions.

Process Explorer
In a previous blog,in septomber i have described Process Explorer tools.
Process Explorer lists(list is shown in a tree structure, and everything is displayed in a two-panel window) every running application on your PC, as well as information about running processes and open files.

This tool (doesn’t require installation) analyzes and displays all active processes on your system, including details about their use of CPU and RAM, their full path and many other useful data.

Yet Another (remote) Process Monitor (YAPM) is an  application that allows to view and manage your running tasks, processes, threads, modules on on a local or on a remote machine.This is opensource tools under GNU GPL 3.0

BES – Battle Encoder Shirase
BES is a small tool that throttles the CPU usage for the process you “target”: for instance, you can limit the CPU usage of a process which would use CPU 100%, down to 50% (or any percentage you’d like). With this, you can use other programs comfortably while doing something CPU-intensive in the background.

By limiting the CPU load, you can also cool down your CPU immediately when it happens to get too hot.

read nice windows gadget tools here


CPU is key resource for a computer system(central processing units),When a CPU resource limited, then application or kernel threads have to wait on a queue to be scheduled on a processor, potentially degrading system performance.The time spent on these queues, the length of these queues and the utilization of the system processor are important metrics for quantifying CPU-related performance bottlenecks.

Few tools can be used for know and test your CPU 

CPU-Z is a freeware that gathers information on some of the main devices of your system. CPU-Z is a freeware that gathers information on some of the main devices of your system.

CPU Clock Utility
The Monitoring module displays graphically the core clock and throttle, the CPU / OS load, frequency and voltage and the core temperature. From the Management section, you can configure the Multi-CPU load calculation method, standby/hibernate actions and the settings regarding CPU defaults.

BurnIn Test
BurnInTest will bring intermittent or hidden problems to the surface so that after a successfully run the computer can be used with a much higher level of confidence. BurnInTest can also be used by overclockers to verify system stability at high clock speeds.

BurnInTest tests the CPU, hard drives, RAM, CD-ROMs, CD burners, DVDs, sound cards, 2D graphics, 3D graphic, network connection, printers, video playback. If you have specialized hardware that BurnInTest does not test, you can even write your own test and integrate it with BurnInTest.

CPU Killer
Cpukiller 3 is a load generator software. It allows you to configure the processor load you want to generate. It also supports multiple processor cores. You can easily start and stop the resource occupancy via its GUI. The slow down factor can be set with its trackbar. It is also possible to configure hot keys, so you can control Cpukiller easily while you test your application

CPU Burn
This allows the user to adjust the CPU speed up to the practical maximum while still being sure that stability is achieved even under the most stressful conditions. The program continuously monitors for erroneous calculations and errors ensuring the CPU does not generate errors during calculations performed under overclocking conditions.

CPU Benchmark tool
You can use use this tool in order to perform three types of tests to your CPU.
CPU Free BenchMark includes testing registries, FPU & ALU.

There are 3 major tests (registry, floating-point operations & integer operations). Each test is built based on some equations & operations depending on the test.

A simple command line profiling tool called HPROF for heap and cpu profiling

Refferences to know more

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